5.2 Kantone:

Switzerland consists of 23 "Kantone" (singular "Kanton", also referred to as cantons or states), 3 of them are divided into "Halb-Kantone" (split states) with the following authorities:
  • "Grosser Rat", "Kantonsrat" or "Landesrat" (the name varies between the cantons), legislative authority
  • "Kantonsregierung", executive authority
  • "Kantonsgericht", judicial authority
The cantons Appenzell, Glarus and Unterwalden do not perform elections and voting, but a so called "Landsgemeinde", an out door assembly of all its citizens. The attendees raise their hands to show if they agree with or deny a particular request.
The duties of the cantons are defined in their "Kantonsverfassung" (cantonal constitution) and include:
  • Education
  • Transportation ("Kantonsstrassen", cantonal roads)
  • Social institutions

5.3 Bezirke:

Each canton consists of a number of "Bezirke" (singular "Bezirk", districts) with the following authorities:
  • People by voting and elections, legislative authority
  • "Bezirksrat", executive authority
  • "Bezirksgericht", judicial authority
The duties of the districts include:
  • Education
  • Judicature

5.4 Gemeinden:

Each district consists of a number of "Gemeinden" (singular "Gemeinde", municipalities). There are a 2929 municipalities in Switzerland. A municipality with more than 10'000 citizens is considered a "Stadt" (town), smaller municipalities are called a "Dorf" (village). However, some smaller villages have the status of a town for historical reasons. Municipalities have the following authorities:
  • "Gemeindeversammlung", an assembly of all citizens, or people by voting and elections, legislative authority
  • "Gemeinderat" or "Stadtrat", executive authority
  • "Friedensrichter" (lay magistrate), judicial authority
The duties of the municipalities include:
  • Local services (electricity, water, fire brigade, police etc.)
  • Transportation ("Gemeindestrassen", local roads)
  • Schools
  • Taxes (they vary significantly between the municipalities !)
From: http://www.about.ch/administration/index.html

communities and the relationships within and between them

translation migration dispersion unity stereotype

link to

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

For other uses, see Community (disambiguation).

Idea for art?? Ripped photo collage
external image time3_mini.jpg
external image time1_mini.jpg

external image 300px-Stonehenge_Summer_Solstice_eve_02.jpg
external image magnify-clip.pngA community of interest gathers at Stonehenge, England, for the summer solstice.


Wikipedia: The term community has two distinct meanings: 1) A group of interacting people, living in some proximity (i.e., in space, time, or relationship). Community usually refers to a social unit larger than a household that shares common values and has social cohesion. The term can also refer to the national community or international community, and, 2) in biology, a community is a group of interacting living organisms sharing a populated environment. In human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks, and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. Since the advent of the Internet, the concept of community has less geographical limitation, as people can now gather virtually in an online community and share common interests regardless of physical location. Prior to the internet, virtual communities (like social or academic organizations) were far more limited by the constraints of available communication and transportation technologies. The word "community" is derived from the Old French communité which is derived from the Latin communitas (cum, "with/together" + munus, "gift"), a broad term for fellowship or organized society.[1]

Diigo Library:

  1. A group of people living together in one place, esp. one practicing common ownership: "a community of nuns".
  2. All the people living in a particular area or place: "local communities".
  3. A group of people living together in one place, esp. one practicing common ownership
  • - a community of nuns
  1. All the people living in a particular area or place
  • - local communities
  1. A particular area or place considered together with its inhabitants
  • - a rural community
  1. The people of a district or country considered collectively, esp. in the context of social values and responsibilities; society
  • - preparing prisoners for life back in the community
  1. Denoting a worker or resource designed to serve the people of a particular area
  • - community health services
  1. A group of people having a religion, race, profession, or other particular characteristic in common
  • - Rhode Island's Japanese community
  • - the scientific community
  1. A body of nations or states unified by common interests
  • - the European Community
  • - the African Economic Community
  1. A feeling of fellowship with others, as a result of sharing common attitudes, interests, and goals
  • - the sense of community that organized religion can provide
  1. A similarity or identity
  • - writers who shared a community of interests
  1. Joint ownership or liability
  • - a commitment to the community of goods
  1. A group of interdependent organisms of different species growing or living together in a specified habitat
  • - communities of insectivorous birds
  1. A set of species found in the same habitat or ecosystem at the same time.

  • (Communities) individuals and/or organizations, within or across sectors, coming together in a physical or virtual (2.0/3.0) space, with shared ideas, interests, visions and goals; typically in peer relationships that utilize an agreed platform to enable interactivity and/or interoperability. ...

  • (Communities) social or cultural groups or networks that share a common purpose, heritage, rights and responsibilities and/or other bonds. ...


Wild idea:

if we took the goods and services we see around us, provided by the community of Cham, and traced them back to the larger need they fulfill:
Library ---education---literacy---informed citizenship--good democratic government
Fire Fighters--safety
Sewage treatment--safety/health
Recycling Center
Schools---education---literacy---informed citizenship--good democratic government
Public Transport

what function did the Zug City walls, or the Cham castle walls fulfill? Why did they buiild the first bridge? the first tunnel?



'Good fences make good neighbours.'

Quote Garden

Idea: Brainstorm
What do you think you'll find provided by the community in Cham?
fire service
Gemeinde buildings
doctors, dentists and police in schools
cleaning services
refuse collection
swimming pool
planning department
maintenance of parks, public buildings etc.
support services
recycling collection/depot
citizen needs: passports
emergency services

View map of Cham and identify. Map these after visit to Cham.